Adaptive Management

Adaptive management promotes flexible decision making that can be adjusted in the face of uncertainties, as outcomes from management actions and other events become better understood. It’s a systematic process for continually improving management policies and practices by learning from the outcomes of programs. Some of the components of adaptive management include: monitoring, analysis of the treatment outcomes in consideration of the original objectives, and incorporation of the results into revised treatment decisions.


A tree care professional in the practice of arboriculture: the cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, and vines, other perennial woody plants. The International Society of Arboriculture (ISA) certifies those who have at least three years of...

Benefits of Trees in the Urban Forest

Trees help maintain air quality; reduce energy use and cool the urban environment; moderate climate extremes; help reduce storm water runoff and sediment; help control erosion; capture and store carbon; support pollination and beneficial insects; provide for a higher...

Biological Control

A method of managing plant pests or weeds using natural predators, parasites or pathogens.